One of the Joint Program's strengths is the international and interdisciplinary character of the faculty’s research interests. We believe such interest is important to the best scholarship—and provides an advantage to UCI doctoral students entering the job market. Because literature is not always translatable and significant scholarship takes place in many languages, and because language study—and the ability to engage works in their original language—makes one more sensitive to the workings of one’s own language, students are required to demonstrate proficiency in at least one language other than written English. This knowledge may be demonstrated in a variety of ways: writing a seminar paper directly utilizing foreign texts, passing advanced level language courses with a B or better, directly translating a designated text, or devising some other manner with the student’s advisor. Because the knowledge of a second language is an important tool and not just a hurdle, we expect students to demonstrate a deep working knowledge of a language rather than simply to pass a university exam.